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California . Northeast
Sea level rise due to global warming could inundate low-lying cities, destroy wetlands, and contaminate state water supplies.


California's 1,100 miles of coastline are a major attraction for tourism, recreation, and other economic activity. The coast is also home to unique ecosystems that are among the world's most imperiled. As global warming continues, California's coastal regions will be increasingly threatened by rising sea levels, more intense coastal storms, and warmer water temperatures.

During the past century, sea levels along California's coast have risen about seven inches. If global warming emissions continue unabated, sea level is expected to rise an additional 22 to 35 inches by the end of the century, inundating coastal areas with salt water, accelerating coastal erosion, threatening vital levees and inland water systems, and disrupting wetlands and natural habitats.

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Increasing Coastal Floods

The combination of increasingly severe winter storms, rising mean sea levels, and high tides is expected to cause more frequent and severe flooding, erosion, and damage to coastal structures. Many California coastal areas are at significant risk for flood damage. For example, the city of Santa Cruz is built on the 100-year floodplain and is only 20 feet above sea level. Although levees have been built to contain the 100-year flood, a 12-inch increase in sea levels (projected for the medium warming range of temperatures) would mean storm-surge-induced flood events at the 100-year level would likely occur once every 10 years.

Flooding can create significant damage and enormous financial losses. Despite extensive engineering efforts, major floods have repeatedly breached levees that protect freshwater supplies and islands in the San Francisco Bay Delta as well as fragile marine estuaries and wetlands throughout the state. Continued sea level rise will further increase vulnerability to levee failures. Some of the most extreme flooding during the past few decades has occurred during El Nino winters, when warmer waters fuel more intense storms. During the winters of 1982-1983 and 1997-1998, for example, abnormally high seas and storm surges caused millions of dollars' worth of damage in the San Francisco Bay area. Highways were flooded as six-foot waves crashed over waterfront bulkheads, and valuable coastal real estate was destroyed.

Continued global warming will require major changes in flood management. In many regions such as the Central Valley, where urbanization and limited river channel capacity already exacerbate rising flood risks, flood damage and flood control costs could amount to several billion dollars.

Shrinking Beaches

Many of California's beaches may shrink in the future because of rising seas and increased erosion from winter storms. Currently, many beaches are protected from erosion through manmade sand replenishment (or "nourishment") programs, which bring in sand from outside sources to replace the diminishing supply of natural sand. In fact, many of the wide sandy beaches in southern California around Santa Monica, Venice, and Newport Beach were created and are maintained entirely by sand nourishment programs. As sea levels rise, increasing volumes of replacement sand will be needed to maintain current beach width and quality. California beach nourishment programs currently cost millions of dollars each year. As global warming continues, the costs of beach nourishment programs will rise, and in some regions beach replenishment may no longer be viable.

Excerpts from Our Changing Climate: A Summary Report from the California Climate Change Center, Draft Report, 2006


See the warming projectionsTo learn more about the effects of global warming on California under different emissions scenarios, see the Impacts Overview.


energy.ca.gov: "Projecting Future Sea Level," California Climate Change Center. (PDF)

Union of Concerned Scientists